THE PENEPLAIN is the remains of an ancient mountain range that towered over the landscape around 1,700 million years ago. It has since eroded down to a flat surface, which now forms the basis of our landscape. This flat basement rock surface is laid bare in only a few places globally – and some of them are here in the geopark!
Image: Slättbergens nature reserve in Trollhättan (Sandhem). Previous image (header image) shows Nordkroken outside Vargön. Photo: Henrik Theodorsson
THE TABLE MOUNTAINS in Västergötland are built up of layers of rocks, like the layers of a cake. These layers are: basement rock (granite/gneiss), sandstone, alum shale, limestone, clay shale, and dolerite. The hard dolerite at the top has saved the mountains from erosion. The various properties of the rocks have given the landscape a beautiful and varying nature, as different plants thrive on different bedrocks.
Image: Ålleberg seen from the megalithic tombs at Karleby, Falköping. Photo: Henrik Theodorsson.
The ice has shaped the landscape we see today! ICE AGE DEPOSITS are, simply put, traces of the ice age. These traces can look, and be made up, differently and you have probably heard of some of them: eskers, kettle holes, end moraines, and sand dunes. These landscape types tell us how the deglaciation happened as the ice sheet retreated.
Image: Kettle hole at Varnhem outside Skara. Photo: Johan Lindwert